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Letters and Memorabilia; Miscellaneous Correspondence and Material

 Unprocessed
Identifier: yhm-arc-0000-187

Content Description

Miscellaneous correspondence and material; includes Samuel Hopkins Adams, George H. Brinkerhoff, Alexander C. Soper, Von Steuben -- Added 7/9/02: signature of John Adams; letter from a 19th century Alexander Hamilton; Metamorphosis, a late 18th or early 19th century hand-drawn manuscript of a harlequinade; Phi Beta Kappa keys; Portuguese document signed by Armando de la Palma y Parduzco.

Acquisition Type

In the Archives since time immemorial

Provenance

Collected by the College through the years.

Restrictions Apply

No

Creator

Inventory

Abolitionists; Adams, John; Samuel Hopkins Adams collection; Admissions; Agee, James; Agee, James – Letters, MS poems, drawings, etc., 1930 (at Harvard)-1938, many undate; Agee, James - related correspondence; AIM; Alexander, Caleb; Alexander Hamilton Players- 1972-73 production of “1776”; Alexander Hamilton Press; Algonquin Round Table Project; Allan, J. Malcolm (Library); Allen, E.W. - letter 1839; Allen, H.E.; Allen, Hervey; Allen, James Lane - Author, born 1849; Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity; Anderson Cottage; Anderson, Sherwood; Anthon, Henry - Trustee, 1821-1866; Anyanwu, E. A.; Architecture; Art; Aurbach, Michael; Awards; Baccalaureate Sermons; Bachellor, Irving; Bacon, Josiah; Beach, Augustus; Ballots, Oneida Co. 1884-91; Barnum, P.T.; Barrows, Eleazer Storrs – 1817-21; Barrows, Eleazer Storrs –1871-21; Beinecke collection of Western Americana (Yale) - facsimiles; Benedict, Erastus C. – copy of letters from Archbishop Trench; Benedict, E.G.; Benson, Egbert; Benton, Caleb; Bicentennial - Hamilton; Binghamton, N.Y. Morning Sun – Special Hoax Edition re. Hamilton College pres. Ferry, 1919; Black, Frank S.; Blackwood, Russel T. (f), Philosophy Dept.; Blake, Peter and Catherine Blake (daughter); Blyth, John W. (f) Philosophy (H.C); Bonaparte (letter); Bookshop, library; Boswell, James; Bowker, R.R.; Bradley, Emilie Royce - Teacher in Clinton: missionary 7/12/1811- 8/2/45; Brant, Joseph; Brinkerhoff papers 1795-1843; Brooks, John - 9th governor of Mass.; Brown, Horace S. Mathem – Clerk, 1908; Brownell, Eleanor (see Meredith Geome); Phyllis Bryn-Julson (f. Kirkland C.), Voice; Buchanan, James – autograph letter; Birchfield, Charles; Burroughs, John; Burroughs, Williams S.; Bulletin; Buttrick (Cornelius de Regt); Buttrick family; Buttrick Hall; Cameron, Harvey; Carnegie, Andrew - copy of letter from Elihu Root; Carroll, Charles (Carroll of Carrollton) - signer of Dec. of Ind.; Carruth, William M. (f), Mathematics, 1907; Caves (in the area); Cawein, Madison; Cayuga County; Centennial celebrations; Cerf, Bennett; Channing, William E. - clergyman, 1780-1842; Charlatan – Constitution draft; Chase, Cleveland K. 1911; Chemistry laboratory; Chevalier, Maurice (in connection with W.B. Johnson); Chi Psi Fraternity; China; Chinese Mandarin robe; Churchill, Winston; Civilian pilot training 1942-1943; Clark, Champ; Clark Prize 1855; Clark Prize; Clark genealogy; Clarke, Edwin L. (f), Law, economics, 1914-19; Classics Dept.; Clay, Henry; Clay, Randolph; Clemens, S. L. (Mark Twain); Clemens, Saumuel Longhorn; To Mrs. A.P. Saunders (original); Writing about Olivia Saunders being named for his Susan Olivia.; From S. L. Clemens Oct. 1906; Cleveland, Grover; Clinton; Clinton Bicentennial; Clinton, N.Y. - public schools architecture and building; Clinton Academy (H.H. Kellogg ‘22); Clinton Cemetery (Association); Clinton – Young Ladies Domestic Seminary; Clinton, Dewitt; Clinton, George D.; Clock; Clymer, George - signer of Dec. of Independence; Cogar, George - trustee; Colfax, Schuyler - autograph; Colgate University; College Inn; Colvin, Verplanck (f); Commencement; Commencement - Latin Forms.; Committees; Conkling, Roscoe - to O.S. Williams; Cooper, Beatrice; Cooper, James Fenimore; Coughlin, Edward Michael - Bursar, 1914-; Count, Earl W.; Coxe, Tench - political economist, 1755-1824; Crane, Hart; Crane, William H. (1945-1928); Crossett, John - (d. 1981) faculty member 1958-61; Culver, Edward - West Point appointment; Curtis, William Stanton - faculty member (1885-1861); D.T. Club; Dale, Nelson C. – Geology, 1914; Dallas, A [J. ?]; Daugherty, Willis V. - Trustee; Debating Teams, etc.; deCroy, Marie (tried and sentenced with Edith Cavell for aiding allies in WWII); Delta Kappa Epsilon; Delta Upsilon; Demosthenes - Bust by Saint Gaudens; Denig, Robert G. - prof. H.C. Appl. Math., 1882-1885; Denio, Hiram -Trustee, 1835-1871; De Regt, Cornelius; Derenbourg, Hartwig; Dewey, George (adm.); Dexter, S. Newton; Dickens, Charles; Diploma - post baccalaureate: 1966 Woodrow Wilson Scholars; Downing, Andrew J. - Landscape Gardener; Documents Miscellaneous; Duane, J.; Dudley, Mary M. - HC acting librarian; Durham, Donald B.- (f), Latin, Greek, 1918; Dwyer, Father; Eaton, Jeffrey C. - Protestant Chaplain and Coordinator of the Chaplaincy; Eberhart, Richard – Letters and MS poems, c. 1930-33; some printed, some handwritten; Erdman, Irwin – Lecturer H.C., 1942; Edmonds, Walter D.; Elliott, Charles Loring – Painter, 1812-1868; Ellison, Linda Morgan (f.) Piano; Emerson, Fred and William; Emerson, Ralph Waldo; Enos, Sanda – poems; Essay prizes; Evans, Elliott – Law, Economics, History, 1860-22; Everett, Edward; Fairfield Academy; Fasg, Mohmoud; Felt, Nancy H. (1916-19); Finance; Finney, Charles G.; Financial Statement – Misc.; Fiske, Jim – Song about; received from Crosby Gaige for the Adams Collection, 3/17/47; Flippin, Percy S. – History, 1916-19; Flower, Roswell P. – Gov. of New York; Force, Peter; Forster, E.M., Hon. ‘49; Fox, H.L.; Francis, John W.; Fraternity committee (Fraternity management agency) Hamilton College; Correspondence re. Fraternities in WWII Era; Frelinghuysen, Theodore – President Rutgers College; Freytag, Marjorie C. – Registrar MWPI, W.C. Palmer Hon.`75 archives; Frost, Robert; Gaffney, Helen (library); Gallatin, Albert; Garfield, James A.; Gaynor, William J. (1851-1913); Gelas, Jean-Marius – (f.), fencing; Gerold, Nicolas J. – (f.), Biology H.C.; Gifts, donations, etc. to the college; Gildersleeve, Basil L. – (1831-1924), American classicist; Glynn, Martin H. (1871-1924); Goertner, Nicholas W.; Goldwater, Barry M., Hon. ‘61; Gordon, Lewis Hall – Romance Languages HC, 1924-43; Goto, Baron Shimpei; Gould, Jay; Grant, Gen. U.S. – Telegram to Morrison R. Waite; Gray, Asa; Greenstreet, Sydney – to W.B. Johnson; Griffin Family; Gymnasium; Hale, Nathan – Alice Adams affair; Hamilton, Alexander; Hamilton, Alexander – photographs rel. to; prints of and relating to; Hamilton, Alexander; Hamilton, Alexander- letter from Jacob Cuyler; Hamilton, Alexander; Hamilton, Alexander; Hamilton, Alexander; Hamilton, Alexander; Hamilton to E. L’Hommedieu 1799 April 4; Hamilton’s Desk; Hamilton, Alexander- original manuscript brief on the Trespass Act; Hamilton, Alexander- signature; Hamilton, Alexander- documents; Hamilton- plans for US Constitution: photostat; Hamilton, Alexander (early-mid 19th century); Hamilton, Edward J. – (f.), Philosophy, 1883-91; Hamilton, John Church; Hamilton College – Addresses (memorial, etc.); H.C. – Ad Hoc Committee on Governance, 1969; H.C. – Admission report; H.C. – Admissions; Cowley Era; H.C. – Admissions; misc; H.C. – Alumni Lecture series; H.C. – Annual Fund; H.C. – Art Dept.; H.C. – 1941-1943 Art department (W.C. Palmer correspond); H.C. – Authors; H.C. – Bell Ringer Award; H.C. – Campus: 1) Map of boundaries of the Hamilton College campus, with precise; measurements; no date.; 2) 1965 map showing Kirkland College lot, etc.; H.C. – Career Center Intern Program; H.C. – Carissima; H.C. – 1st Catalogue (1814); gift of the family of Edward Robinson, class of 1816; H.C. – Cemetery; H.C. – Chemistry; H.C. – Commencement Address; H.C. – Computer Center; H.C. – Convocation; H.C. – Crew; H.C. – Deans; H.C. – Divestment; H.C. – Endowment; H.C. – Evaluation Report 1958; H.C. – Examinations; H.C. – Faculty Club Minutes 1963-1982; H.C. – Faculty (Lists, etc.); H.C. – Financial reports to General Board of Education; H.C. – Football; H.C. – Geology Dept., Notes on History of; H.C. – Gold Group; H.C. – Grade Distribution; H.C. – Graduates; H.C. – Half-Century Annalist Letters; H.C. – Hamilton Alumni Lecture Series; H.C. – Health Center; H.C. – History; H.C. – Honor Code; H.C. – Korean War; H.C. – Law Dept; H.C. – Lighting; H.C. – Marshall Scholarships; H.C. – Math Dept; H.C. – Parent’s weekend; H.C. – graduates in Peace Corps; H.C. – Picture Rental Collection; H.C. – Prejudice Reduction; H.C. – Poetry and authors; H.C. – Premedical education; H.C. – Presidential search committee (1987); H.C. – Prints; H.C. – Psychology Dept.; H.C. – Public speaking; H.C. – Questionnaires and Surveys; H.C. – WHCl- FM (radio station); H.C. – Quintette Club; H.C. – Service recognition; H.C. – Sexual Harassment Grievance Board; H.C. – Signs; H.C. – Report on Size of the Ideal College, Ferry, 1921; H.C. – Songs; H.C. – Sororities; H.C. – Students Letters (1826-1846), etc.; H.C. – Student Life; H.C. – Student Life (pranks); H.C. – Student pranks; cannon incident 1823; H.C. – Student slang; H.C. – Student summer travel grant; H.C. – Swimming; H.C. – Theatre and Dance Dept. (including etc., W. Johnson Prize Plays etc.); H.C. – Visit by Russians, 1972; H.C. – Walter H. Pritchard Track; H.C. – Wag; H.C. – War time program; H.C. – Women’s studies; S.S. Hamilton victory; Hamilton Worthies – Notable Alumni, arranged by area); The Hamiltonian; Hamilton Oneida Academy Scheme of Exercise (1810); Hand, S.D.; Harding, Agnes Burke (Mrs. Henry W. Harding `34); Harding, Warren G.; Hardy, Thomas; Harris, Ira; Harris, Thomas Lake; Hastings, Harold R. – (f.), Latin, Greek, 1911-18; Hastings, J.C. – Gardener; Hawley, L, David; Hay, Undey – letter, 1779; Hays, Will H.; Headley, Joel T. – Author, born 1814; Hemingway, Ernest – Autograph letter to John V.A. Weaver ‘14; Heyward, DuBose; Hitchcock, Edward; Hockey; Holmes, Oliver Wendell; Homes of the Presidents; Hopper, Edward – American artist; Houghton, Stella C. – Teacher of the Houghton Seminary; Housing surveys; Housman, Alfred Edward; Howland, Leroy A. Jr. - (f.), Romance Languages; Hubbard, Elbert; Hubbard, Thomas Hill – Trustee, 1817-27; 1832-39; Hughes, Charles E.; Hull, William; Hunter, Mary Paula – (f.), dance; Huntington, A. Montgomery – Special course in navigation (WWII); Huxley, Sir Julian; Hylan, John F. (1868-1936); India – Letter for victory; Ingalls, John J.; Irving, Washington; Jervis, Jane L. – Dean of Students 1982-1987; Johnson, Alexander B.; Johnson, John – author of Report on West Indies 1824; Jones, Thomas S. – Dean; Jones, Pomeroy – to O.S. Williams; Jones, Theodore S. – Dean; Junior exhibition; Nathaniel Kendrick Trustee 1825-37; Kennedy, Robert F.; Kent, James – Chancellor of New York 1763-1847; King, Rufus; Kingsley Prize debate; Kingsley Prize exhibition; Kirkland, Orlando S. – to O.S. Williams; Kirkland, Town of – Early History; Kirkland College – Dissolution; confidential; Kirkland Cottage; Kirkland Town Library – Holdings not duplicated by Burke Library; Kitteridge, G.L. – Harvard professor; Kreinheder, John Herbert; LaFayette, Marquis de; Lampman, Archibald; Land transactions; Lansing, Dirk Cornelius – trustee; Lansing, John – Jurist, 1754-1829; Laurance, John; Laves, Walter – H.C. (f.), Political Science; Leavenworth scholarship; Lee, Gen. Henry; Lee, Richard B. Bvt. Maj., died 1875; Lee, Warren E. – Congressman sixth Dist. NY.; Leslie, Shane – to Peggy Wood; Letterheads; Lewis, Morgan – governor of New York, 1754-1844; Library- Spectator comment on “Johnson report” 1973-1974; Lincoln, Abraham – death of the president, contemporary newspaper; Lincoln, Victoria – letters and MS poems; Lindsay, Nicholas Vachel; Livingston, Brockholst; Livingston, Gilbert; Lodge, Henry Cabot; Lokasiewicz, Jan; Lomax, Sondra – (f.), Dance; Loomis Gang; Lorenz, Frank K. – Librarian special collections, editor HC publications, etc.; Louisiana – Inventory of the Parish Archives of Louisiana; Love Field; Low, Seth – President of Columbia College; Lucioni, Luigi; Madison, James – letter patent, signed by Madison, Monroe and B. Rush; Magee, John – letter to H. Seymour; Marcos, Ferdinand E.; McCormack, Elizabeth J. – trustee H.C.; McEwen, Majorie A.; McHarg, William Neil – (f.), 1862-1869; McHenry, James; McKinney, Charles – trustee, 1877-1884; McKinney Prize Debate; McKinney Prize Declamation; Mandeville, Henry; Meredith, George; Miscellaneous Manuscripts; Marshall, John; Masefield, John – correspondence with Mrs. A.P. Saunders; also portion of letter of; Matilda Brownell to sister, Mrs. A.P. Saunders; Maynard, William H. – trustee, 1827-28; Memorial Hall and Art Gallery; Metamorphosis late 18th or early 19th century hand drawn Harlequinade; Miller, Colin F. – dean of the chapel from 1955-1969; Miller, Morris S. – trustee, 1812-1824; Miller, Nathan L.; Miller, Samuel; Miller, William J. – (f.), Geology, 1905-14; Mills, Albert Leopold; Miner, Myrtilla; Mineralogical society of Hamilton College, 1826-1827; Missionary work – Hamilton Men; Mistinquett – to W.B. Johnson; Mohawk Valley Historic Association; Monroe, Harriet – to Carl Sandburg; Morgan, Tom M.; Morley, John – letter to Elihu Root; Morrill, Albro D. – (f.), Chemistry, Biology, 1891 (AD Morrill Library fund material); Morrill, Albro David – letters to J.L. Appleton, Jr. ‘09 and memorabilia; Appleton, 1976; Morris, Gouveneur; Morse, Samuel F.B.; Moss, Samuel A.; Moulton, Louise Chandler; Murray, John Middleton; Muster Rolls – Civil War; Nassar, Eugene Paul; Nast, Thomas; Nazi; Neider, Charles – writer; Nemerov, Howard – letter 1948 to Mr. and Mrs. A.P. Saunders; Nicholas, Thomas Flint - (f.); North, William; Norton, Leslie – (f.), dance; Nott, Eliphalet – President of Union College; Obituary Clippings from CHF Peters File; Noyes, Josiah; Noyes, William Curtis; O’Casey, Sean – letter to Peggy Wood; Occum, Samson – photos of grave; Odell, Benjamin B. Jr. – Governor of New York, 1901-1905; The Oneida community; Oneida County indentures, letters, etc.; Paine, H.S.; Paine Collection of Roman corns; Palmer, David – Instructor, 1835; Parker, Dorothy – author; Parton, James – author, 1822-1891; Patton, Francis L.- (f.), economics, 1920; Paul, J. Gilman D’Arcy; Paulding, J.K.; Peary, Robert E. 1856-1920; Penn, William; Pentagon; Perry H. Smith Library Hall specifications; Phi Beta Kappa (includes box of keys); Pickering, Timothy; Pike, Albert; Pinckey, Charles Cotesworth; Pilkington, Walter – correspondence re. Pilkington Book Fund; Pioneers of America; Platt, Thomas C. – U.S. senator; Playbills; Plowman, George T. – artist; Pomeroy, Robert W. – attached autographs of Elihu Root, R. Fletcher; Pope Leo XII; Porter, Robert – Principal of Hamilton Oneida Academy 1801-1806; Portuguese document – Armando de la Palma Y Parduzzo; Powell family; Presbyterians and H.C.; Presidential turnover 1812-1839; Presidents (various colleges); Professorships; Pruyn, John Van Shaick Lansing – state senator, member of congress, 1811-1877; Publications; Putnam, Herbert; Putnam, John N – professor, d. 1864; commorative discorse by Dr. S.A. Brown; Putnam, Elizabeth – papers 1801-1819 (0000.339.1); Putnam, Elizabeth – papers 1801-1819 (0000.339.2); Revolutionary War – British army pay warrant 1779 (transcription); Rhodes scholars; Rice, C. Duncan; Richards, Ivor A. – letters 1931-33; Rittenhouse, Jessie; Robeson, Paul; Robinson, Edwin A.- 1930; Robinson, Maj. Gen. John C. (1817-1897) – Lt. Gov. of New York 1872-74; Robinson, T. Douglas; Roche, Gene A. – director career planning services at H.C.; Rockefeller, John D. Jr. – from Alpha Delta Phi archives; Rodgers, Richard – to W.B. Johnson; Roe, Dr. Leon M. – physician at H.C., 1964-1975; Rogers, Sherman S. – trustee, 1880-85; Roosevelt, Theodore; Roosevelt, Theodore- letters; Roosevelt, Mrs. Theodore; Root, Alice; Root, Edith; Elihu Root House (admissions building); Ross, George, Jr. – son of signer; Royal Gaboon; Royce, Josiah; Royce Prize essay; Rudd family; Rules and regulations; Sacco and Vanzetti Case – copy of letters of William G. Thompson; Sandburg, Carl; San Martin, Jose De – autographed letter presented to the Hon. Elihu Root; Saunders, Percy and Louise – poetry fund; Saunders chemistry building; Saunders, Samuel J. – Phys., Astron., Registrar, 1892; Sauquoit Academy (photo); Schliemann, Heinrich (archaeologist); Scholarship funds; Schools, Clinton; Schuyler, Philip; Scott, Duncan Campbell; Scott, Hugh Lenox; Scarf sheets – ca 1867-1892; Second Coming – broadside announcement; Semi-centennial celebration 1862; Seneca, manuscripts; Sesquicentennial; Seymour, Horatio – to O.S. Williams; Shaw, Oliver; Shepard, C.O.; Shepard, W.P.; Sheridan, General Philip H.; Sherman, Frank Dempster; Sherman, John (1823-1900) – secretary of state; Sherman, Gen William Tecumseh – letter to U.S. Grant; Sherrod, Drury R.; Shorey, Paul; Sigma Xi; Silliman Hall; Skillman family – letter to George W. Griffin; Skinner, Thomas H.; Slavery; Smith, Asa D. – trustee, 1858-1864; Songs; Alexander C. Soper correspondence with E.M. Coughlin, Bursar; Alexander C. Soper correspondence with President Ferry, 1917-1920; Alexander C. Soper notes and correspondence for financial appeal, 1921; Alexander C. Soper miscellaneous college business; Soper, Arthur W. (1838-1901); Soper, George E.; Spalding, Lyman (papers); Sparks, Jared; Speeches – manuscript, 1912-1921, baccalaureate salutorian; Spencer, Ambrose – jurist; member of congress; Spencer, Frederick R.; Spencer, Theodore – at Harvard; Spencer Lens Telescope; Sports; Squires club; Stamp act of 1765; Stanton, Edwin M.; Stedman, E.C.; Stevens, Walter LeConte – Physics; Stieg, Lewis F. – librarian 1936-43; Stone, Daniel P. – Stone professorship of Biology; Street, Alfred B.; Strike (spring 1970); Strong, Theodore – sale of property to Josiah Noyes, 1818; Strong, Theodore; Stryker – sheet music: commencement ode; Student essays – received among a group by J.H. Knox, ‘1868, see class folders; Sullivan, William – lawyer, born 1848; Sulzer, William; Sumner, Charles; Sunset Hill Cemetery, Clinton N.Y.; Super, Ralph C. – Spanish, French, German, 1913; Swan, Emma – letters and MS poems; Taft, William Howard, Hon. 1913 – signed commencement program; Tarbox, Increase Niles (1815-1888); Tarkington, Booth – letter to Charles N. Towne re. Alexander Woollcott; Tarkington, Booth; Tau Kappa Epsilon; Ten Broeck, Dirck – mayor of Albany; Tennyson, Alfred Lord; Thomas, Norman; Tilden, Samuel J.; Tower, Charlemagne – U.S. Diplomat (see also Ch. Sumner file); Tower, Reuben – Hamilton Oneida Academy; Toy Books; Tredwell, Thomas (also see H. Davis Papers in RBR); Tredwell, Thomas – correspondence concerning the Treadwell material; Treasurer of Hamilton College – miscellaneous stationary; Treves, Frederick (see DNB) – letter to Mrs. Hardy regarding subjecr of cancer and; causation; Trilling, Lionel and Diana – corresponence with George L. Nesbitt; 1979; Troust, Warren – (f.), public speaking; Trovato, Joseph; Truax, Robert; Trumbull, James H. – Philologist and Historian; Trustee papers; Trustees: Building, Grounds and Equipment committee; Twitchell, George – Janitor; Tyler, John - president of the U.S.; framed envelope addressed to the Pheonix Society; Ulster County Gazette; Undergraduate activities; Utica, N.Y. sesquicentennial; Van Buren, Martin; Van Der Kemp, Francis Adrian (1752-1829); Van Rensselaer, Kiliaan – conveyance, 1696; Van Rensselaer, Stephan; Gulian C. Verplanck – author, 1786-1870; Vignaud, Henry; Von Steuben; Von Steuben letters; Von Steuben, F. W. Baron; Von Steuben- correspondence; Wall paper newspaper, etc. from old college museum; War of 1812 – political poster War of 1812; Washington, Booker T.; Washington, George; Waterville Historical Society – Museum Master printout dissertation: “Charlemagne; Tower at Harvard College”; Wayland, John; Weather data (see also meteorological observations); Webster, Daniel; Weld, Theodore; Wetling, J.W.; Wheeler, George Washington – journal (1806); White, E.B. – see Woollcott pile for an additional letter; White, George; White, Philo; Whitehead, Alfred North – presented by Mrs. Grace Root, 1969; Whitman, Charles S.; Whitman, Walt – autograph letter; Wilcox, Ella Wheeler; Wilamowitz, Ulrich V.; Moellendorf; Williams Family; Williams Family; Williams Family; Williams, David; Williams, Otho H.; Williams, Perry Hughes; Wilson, Edmund; Winslow lectures; With, Karl – H.C. Art Dept.; Wodehouse, P.G.; Wolcott, Oliver Jr.; Wolfe, Thomas – copy of letter; Wilson, Woodrow; Woodhull, Victoria; Woods, Mrs. Helen; Woods, Leonard – 4th president Bowdoin College; Woollcott, Alexander `09 – copies of Misc. published magazine and newspaper articles; Woollcott, Alexander `09 Misc. published magazine and newspaper articles; The World Wars; Yale men at Hamilton; Andrew Yates – trustee 1828-1836; Y.M.C.A.; Young, Brigham – facsimile of proclamation; Younghusband, Sir Francis